1. Spirit of the Game
2. Playing Field
4. Point, Goal and Game
6. Starting a Game
7. The Pull
8. Status of the Disc
9. Stall Count
10. The Check
12. Receivers and Positioning
15. Calling Fouls, Infractions and Violation
16. Continuation after a Foul or Violation Call
18. Infractions and Violations
Ultimate is a seven-a-side team sport played with a flying disc. It is played on a rectangular field, about half the width of a football field, with an end zone at each end. The object of each team is to score a goal by having a player catch a pass in the end zone that they are attacking. A thrower may not run with the disc, but may pass the disc in any direction to any team-mate. Any time a pass is incomplete, a turnover occurs, and the other team may take the disc to score in the opposite end zone. Games are typically played to 17 goals and last around 100 minutes. Ultimate is self-refereed and non-contact. The Spirit of the Game guides how players referee the game and conduct themselves on the field.
Spirit of the Game
- 1.1. Ultimate is a non-contact, self-refereed sport. All players are responsible for administering and adhering to the rules. Ultimate relies upon a Spirit of the Game that places the responsibility for fair play on every player.
- 1.2. It is trusted that no player will intentionally break the rules; thus there are no harsh penalties for breaches, but rather a method for resuming play in a manner which simulates what would most likely have occurred had there been no breach.
- 1.3. Players should be mindful of the fact that they are acting as referees in any arbitration between teams. In such situations, players must:
- 1.3.1. know the rules;
- 1.3.2. be fair-minded and objective;
- 1.3.3. be truthful;
- 1.3.4. explain their viewpoint clearly and briefly;
- 1.3.5. allow opponents a reasonable chance to speak;
- 1.3.6. resolve disputes as quickly as possible; and
- 1.3.7. use respectful language.
- 1.4. Highly competitive play is encouraged, but should never sacrifice the mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed-upon rules of the game, or the basic joy of play.
- 1.5. The following actions are examples of good spirit:
- 1.5.1. informing a team-mate if they have made a wrong or unnecessary call or caused a foul or violation;
- 1.5.2. retracting a call when you no longer believe the call was necessary;
- 1.5.3. complimenting an opponent for good play or spirit;
- 1.5.4. introducing yourself to your opponent; and
- 1.5.5. reacting calmly towards disagreement or provocation.
- 1.6. The following actions are clear violations of the spirit of the game and must be avoided by all participants:
- 1.6.1. dangerous play and aggressive behaviour;
- 1.6.2. intentional fouling or other intentional rule violations;
- 1.6.3. taunting or intimidating opposing players;
- 1.6.4. disrespectful celebration after scoring;
- 1.6.5. making calls in retaliation to an opponent's call; and
- 1.6.6. calling for a pass from an opposition player.
- 1.7. Teams are guardians of the Spirit of the Game, and must:
- 1.7.1. take responsibility for teaching their players the rules and good spirit;
- 1.7.2. discipline players who display poor spirit; and
- 1.7.3. provide constructive feedback to other teams about how to improve their adherence to the Spirit of the Game.
- 1.8. In the case where a novice player commits an infraction out of ignorance of the rules, experienced players are obliged to explain the infraction.
- 1.9. An experienced player, who offers advice on rules and guides on-field arbitration, may supervise games involving beginners or younger players.
- 1.10. Rules should be interpreted by the players directly involved in the play, or by players who had the best perspective on the play. Non-players, apart from the captain, should refrain from getting involved. However for calls relating to "out-of-bounds" and 3 "down", players may seek the perspective of non-players to assist them to make the appropriate call.
- 1.11. If players cannot agree what occurred in a play, the disc shall be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.
- 2.1. The playing field is a rectangle one hundred (100) metres long and thirty-seven (37) metres wide (see Figure 1).
- 2.2. The perimeter of the playing field is the perimeter line and consists of two (2) sidelines along the length and two (2) endlines along the width.
- 2.3. The perimeter lines are not part of the playing field.
- 2.4. The playing field is broken up into a central playing field proper that is sixty-four (64) metres long by thirty-seven (37) metres wide, and two end zones that are eighteen (18) metres deep by thirty-seven (37) metres wide at each end of the playing field proper.
- 2.5. The goal lines are the lines that separate the playing field proper from the end zones and are part of the playing field proper.
- 2.6. The brick mark is the intersection of two (2) crossed one (1) metre lines in the playing field proper set twenty (20) metres from each goal line, midway between the sidelines.
- 2.7. All lines are between seventy-five (75) and one hundred and twenty (120) millimetres wide, and are marked with a non-caustic material.
- 2.8. Eight brightly-coloured, flexible objects (such as plastic cones) mark the corners of the playing field proper and the end zones.
- 2.9. The immediate surroundings of the playing field shall be kept clear of movable objects. If play is obstructed by non-players or objects within three (3) metres of the perimeter line, any obstructed player or thrower in possession may call "Violation" and the stall count restarts at maximum nine (9).
- 3.1. Any flying disc acceptable to both captains may be used.
- 3.2. WFDF may maintain a list of approved discs recommended for use.
- 3.3. Each player must wear a uniform that distinguishes their team.
- 3.4. No player may wear items of clothing or equipment that reasonably could harm the wearer or other players.
Point, Goal and Game
- 4.1. A game consists of a number of points. Each point ends with the scoring of a goal.
- 4.2. A game is finished and won by the first team to score seventeen (17) goals.
- 4.3. A game is separated into two (2) periods of play, called halves. Half time occurs when a team first scores nine (9) goals.
- 4.4. The first point of each half starts when the half starts.
- 4.5. After a goal is scored, and the game has not been won or half time has not been reached:
- 4.5.1. the next point starts immediately; and
- 4.5.2. the teams switch the end zone that they are defending; and
- 4.5.3. the team that scored becomes defence and pulls next.
- 4.6. A variation of the basic structure may be used to accommodate special competitions, number of players, age of players or available space.
- 5.1. Each team will put a maximum of seven (7) players and a minimum of five (5) players on the field during each point.
- 5.2. A team may make (unlimited) substitutions only after a goal is scored and before the next pull, except for injury (Section 19).
- 5.3. Each team will nominate a captain to represent the team.
Starting a Game
- 6.1. The captains of the two teams fairly determine which team first chooses either:
- 6.1.1. whether to receive or throw the initial pull; or
- 6.1.2. which end zone they will defend.
- 6.2. The other team is given the remaining choice.
- 6.3. At the start of the second half, these initial selections are switched.
7. The Pull
- 7.1. At the start of the game, after half-time or after a score, play commences with a throwoff, called a pull.
- 7.1.1. Teams must prepare for the pull without unreasonable delay.
- 7.2. The pull consists of a defensive player throwing the disc to begin play, after the offence is ready.
- 7.3. The offensive team signals their readiness by having at least one player raise a hand above their head.
- 7.4. Once ready, and until the pull is released, all offensive players must stand with one foot on their defending goal line without changing position relative to one another.
- 7.5. All defensive players must be entirely inside their defending end zone when the pull is released.
- 7.6. If a violation of 7.4 or 7.5 is called by the opposing team, the pull will be repeated.
- 7.7. As soon as the disc is released, all players may move in any direction.
- 7.8. No player on the defensive team may touch the disc after a pull until a member of the offensive team contacts the disc or the disc contacts the ground.
- 7.9. If an offensive player, in-bounds or out-of-bounds, touches the disc before it hits the ground, and the offensive team fails to catch it, that is a turnover (a "dropped pull").
- 7.10. If the disc initially contacts the playing field and never becomes out-of-bounds, or is caught in-bounds, the thrower establishes the pivot where the disc stops.
- 7.11. If the disc initially contacts the playing field and then becomes out-of-bounds without contacting an offensive player, the thrower establishes the pivot at the point on the playing field proper closest to where the disc went out-of-bounds (Section 11.7).
- 7.12. If the disc becomes out-of-bounds after touching an offensive player, or an offensive player catches the pull out-of-bounds, the thrower establishes the pivot at the point on the playing field closest to where the disc went out-of-bounds (Section 11.5).
- 7.13. If the disc becomes out-of-bounds without first touching the playing field or an offensive player, the thrower may establish the pivot either at the brick mark closest to their defending end zone, or at the spot on the playing field proper closest to where the disc went out-of-bounds (Section 11.7). The brick option must be signalled by the intended thrower before picking up the disc by fully extending one arm above their head.
8. Status of the Disc
- 8.1. The disc is dead, and no turnover is possible:
- 8.1.1. After the start of a point, until the pull is released;
- 8.1.2. After the pull or after a turnover when the disc must be carried to the location of the correct pivot point, until a pivot is established; or
- 8.1.3. After a call which stops the play or any other stoppage, until the disc is checked in.
- 8.2. A disc that is not dead is live.
- 8.3. The thrower may not transfer possession of a dead disc to another player.
- 8.4. Any player may attempt to stop a disc from rolling or sliding after it has hit the ground.
- 8.5. If, in attempting to stop such a disc, a player significantly alters the disc's position, the opposition may call "Violation" and play restarts with a check at the location where the disc was contacted.
- 8.6. After a turnover, the team that has gained possession of the disc must continue play without delay. The intended thrower must move at walking pace or faster to directly retrieve the disc and establish a pivot.
9. Stall Count
- 9.1. The marker administers a stall count on the thrower by announcing "Stalling" and then counting from one (1) to ten (10). The interval between the start of each word in the stall count must be at least one (1) second.
- 9.2. The stall count must be clearly audible to the thrower.
- 9.3. The marker may only start a stall count when the disc is live.
- 9.4. The marker may only start and continue a stall count when they are within three (3) metres of the thrower and all defenders are legitimately positioned (Section 18.1).
- 9.5. If the marker moves more than three (3) metres from the thrower, or a different player becomes the marker, the stall count must be restarted at one (1).
- 9.6. To restart a stall count "at maximum n", where "n" is a number between one (1) and nine (9), means to announce "stalling" followed by the count at one more than the last number uttered prior to the stoppage, or by "n" if that value is greater than "n".
10. The Check
- 10.1. Whenever play stops during a point for a time-out, foul, violation, contested turnover, safety stoppage or injury stoppage, play shall restart as quickly as possible with a check.
- 10.2. Except in the case of a time-out:
- 10.2.1. All players shall return to the positions they held when the event that caused the stoppage occurred.
- 10.2.2. If the disc was in the air when the event that caused the stoppage occurred, and the disc is returned to the thrower to restart play, all players shall return to the positions they held when the disc was released by the thrower.
- 10.2.3. All players must remain stationary in that position until the disc is checked in.
- 10.3. Any player may briefly extend a stoppage of play to correct faulty equipment, but active play may not be stopped for this purpose.
- 10.4. The person checking the disc in must first verify with the nearest opposition player that their team is ready.
- 10.5. To restart play:
- 10.5.1. if the disc is within reach of a defender, they shall touch the disc and call "Disc In";
- 10.5.2. if the disc is not within reach of a defender, the thrower shall touch the disc to the ground and call "Disc In"; or
- 10.5.3. if the disc is not within reach of a defender and there is no thrower, the defender nearest to the disc shall call "Disc In".
- 10.6. If the thrower attempts a pass before the check, or a violation of 10.2 is called, the pass does not count regardless of whether it is complete or incomplete, and possession reverts back to the thrower.
- 11.1. The entire playing field is in-bounds. The perimeter lines are not part of the playing field and are out-of-bounds. All non-players are part of the out-of-bounds area.
- 11.2. The out-of-bounds area consists of the area which is not in-bounds and everything in contact with it, except for defensive players, who are always considered "in-bounds" for purposes of making a play on the disc.
- 11.3. An offensive player who is not out-of-bounds is in-bounds.
- 11.3.1. An airborne player retains their in-bounds/out-of-bounds status until that player contacts the playing field or the out-of-bounds area.
- 11.3.2. A thrower in possession of the disc, who contacts the playing field and then touches an out-of-bounds area, is still considered in-bounds.
- 126.96.36.199. If the thrower leaves the playing field, they must establish the pivot at the spot on the playing field where they crossed the perimeter line (unless 14.2 is in effect).
- 11.3.3. Contact between players does not confer the state of being in- or out-ofbounds from one to another.
- 11.4. A disc is in-bounds once it is live, or when play starts or restarts.
- 11.5. A disc becomes out-of-bounds when it first contacts the out-of-bounds area or contacts an out-of-bounds offensive player. A disc in the possession of an offensive player has the same in/out-of-bounds status as that player. If the disc is simultaneously in the possession of more than one offensive player, one of them being out-of-bounds, the disc is out-of-bounds.
- 11.6. The disc may fly outside a perimeter line and return to the playing field, and players may go out-of-bounds to make a play on the disc.
- 11.7. The place where a disc went out-of-bounds is the spot where, prior to contacting an out-of-bounds area or player, the disc was most recently:
- 11.7.1. partly or wholly over the playing field; or
- 11.7.2. contacted by in-bounds player.
- 11.8. To continue play after an out-of-bounds turnover, the thrower establishes the pivot at the spot on the playing field proper nearest to where the disc went out-of-bounds.
- 11.9. If the disc is out-of-bounds and more than three (3) metres from the pivot point, nonplayers may retrieve the disc. The thrower must carry the disc the last three (3) metres to the playing field.
12. Receivers and Positioning
- 12.1. A player "catches" the disc by demonstrating sustained control of a non-spinning disc.
- 12.2. If the player loses control of the disc due to subsequent contact with the ground or a team-mate or a legitimately positioned opposition player, the catch is deemed to have not occurred.
- 12.3. The following are turnovers, and no catch is deemed to have occurred:
- 12.3.1. an offensive receiver is out-of-bounds when they contact the disc; or
- 12.3.2. after catching the disc, an offensive receiver's first contact is out-of-bounds while still in possession of the disc.
- 12.4. After a catch, that player becomes the thrower.
- 12.5. If offensive and defensive players catch the disc simultaneously, the offence retains possession.
- 12.6. A player in an established position is entitled to remain in that position and should not be contacted by an opposing player.
- 12.7. When a player is making a play on the disc, an opposing player may not move to intentionally impede that player's movements, unless they are also making a play on the disc.
- 12.8. Every player is entitled to occupy any position on the field not occupied by any opposing player, provided that they do not cause contact in taking such a position.
- 12.9. When the disc is in the air, all players must attempt to avoid contact with other players, and there is no situation where a player may justify initiating contact. "Making a play for the disc" is not a valid excuse for initiating contact with other players.
- 12.10. Some incidental contact, not affecting the outcome of the play or safety of players, may occur as two or more players move towards a single point simultaneously. Incidental contact should be minimized but is not considered a foul.
- 12.11. All players have the right to the space immediately above them. An opponent may not obstruct a player from occupying this space.
- 12.12. No player may physically assist the movement of another player.
- 13.1. A turnover transfers possession of the disc from one team to the other and occurs when:
- 13.1.1. the disc contacts the ground while it is not in the possession of an offensive player (a "down");
- 13.1.2. the disc is handed over from one offensive player to another without ever being completely untouched by both players (a "hand-over");
- 13.1.3. the thrower intentionally deflects a pass to themselves off another player (a "deflection");
- 13.1.4. in attempting a pass, the thrower contacts the disc after release prior to the disc being contacted by another player (a "double touch");
- 13.1.5. a pass is caught by a defensive player (an "interception");
- 13.1.6. the disc becomes out-of bounds (an "out-of-bounds");
- 13.1.7. the thrower has not released the disc before the marker first starts to say the word "ten" in the stall count (a "stall-out");
- 13.1.8. there is an uncontested offensive receiving foul; or
- 13.1.9. during the pull, the receiving team touches the disc before it contacts the ground, and fails to catch the disc (a "dropped pull").
- 13.2. If it is unclear whether a turnover occurred, the player(s) with the best perspective quickly makes the call. If either team disagrees they may call "contest" and:
- 13.2.1. the disc is returned to the thrower; and
- 13.2.2. any stall count restarts at maximum nine (9).
- 13.3. If a fast count occurs in such a manner that the offence does not have a reasonable opportunity to call fast count before a stall-out, the play is treated as a contested stallout (13.2).
- 13.4. If the thrower contests a stall-out but also attempts a pass, and the pass is incomplete, then the turnover stands and play continues.
- 13.5. After a turnover, the turnover location is where:
- 13.5.1. the disc has come to a stop or is picked up by an offensive player; or
- 13.5.2. the intercepting player stops; or
- 13.5.3. the thrower was located, in the case of [[#a13.1.2 | 13.1.2, [[#a13.1.3 | 13.1.3, [[#a13.1.4 | 13.1.4, [[#a13.1.7 | 13.1.7; or
- 13.5.4. the uncontested offensive receiving foul occurred.
- 13.6. If the turnover location is in the playing field proper, the thrower must establish the pivot at that point.
- 13.7. If the turnover location is in the offence's attacking end zone, the thrower must establish the pivot at the nearest point on the goal line.
- 13.8. If the turnover location is in the offence's defending end zone, the thrower may choose where to establish the pivot:
- 13.8.1. at the turnover location, by staying at the turnover location or faking a pass; or
- 13.8.2. at the nearest point on the goal line to the turnover location, by moving from the turnover location.
- 13.8.3. Immediate movement or failure to move determines where to establish the pivot and cannot be reversed.
- 13.9. If the turnover location is out-of-bounds, play continues according to [[#a11.7 | Section 11.7.
- 13.10. If, after a turnover, play has continued unknowingly, play stops and the disc is returned to the turnover location, players resume their positions at the time the turnover occurred and play restarts with a check.
- 14.1. A goal is scored if an in-bounds player catches a legal pass and all of their first simultaneous points of contact after catching the disc are entirely within their attacking end zone (note [[#a12.1 | 12.1, [[#a12.2 | 12.2).
- 14.2. If a player in possession of the disc ends up completely behind the attacking goal line without scoring a goal according to 14.1, the player establishes the pivot at the nearest point of the goal line.
- 14.3. The time at which a goal is scored is when, after the disc is caught, contact is first made with the end zone.
15. Calling Fouls, Infractions and Violations
- 15.1. A breach of the rules due to non-incidental contact between two or more opposing players is a foul.
- 15.2. A breach of the rules regarding a Marking or Travel breach is an infraction. Infractions do not stop play.
- 15.3. Every other breach of the rules is a violation.
- 15.4. Only the player fouled may claim a foul, by calling "Foul".
- 15.5. Any opposing player may claim an infraction, by calling the specific name of the infraction.
- 15.6. Any opposing player may claim a violation, by calling the specific name of the violation or "Violation", unless specified otherwise by the particular rule.
- 15.7. Calls must be made immediately after the breach occurs.
- 15.8. If a player from the team against which the foul, infraction or violation has been called disagrees that it occurred, they may call "Contest".
- 15.9. If a player making the "Foul", "Violation" or "Contest" call subsequently determines that their call was unnecessary, they can retract the call, by calling "Retracted". Play restarts with a check.
- 15.10. Stall Counts after a Foul, Violation or Contest resume as follows (unless specified otherwise):
- 15.10.1. After a foul or violation by the defence:
- 188.8.131.52. if there is no contest the count is reset to one (1);
- 184.108.40.206. if it is contested any stall count restarts at maximum six (6).
- 15.10.2. After a foul by the offence, whether contested or not, any stall count restarts at maximum nine (9).
- 15.10.3. After a violation by the offence:
- 220.127.116.11. if there is no contest the stall count restarts at maximum nine (9);
- 18.104.22.168. if the violation is contested any stall count restarts at maximum six (6).
- 15.10.4. After simultaneous offsetting fouls or violations, any stall count restarts at maximum six (6).
- 15.10.5. For all other contested calls, any stall count restarts at maximum six (6).
16. Continuation after a Foul or Violation Call
- [[#a16.1 [[#a16.1 | 16.1. Whenever a foul or violation call is made, play stops immediately and no turn over is possible.
- 17.1. Dangerous Play:
- 17.1.1. Reckless disregard for the safety of fellow players regardless of whether or when contact occurs is considered dangerous play and is treated as a foul. This rule is not superseded by any other rule.
- 17.2. Defensive Receiving (Defender) Fouls:
- 17.2.1. A Defensive Receiving Foul occurs when a defender initiates contact with a receiver before, or during, an attempt to catch the disc.
- 17.2.2. After a defensive receiving foul:
- 22.214.171.124. if in the playing field proper or defending end zone, the receiver gains possession at the point of the infraction;
- 126.96.36.199. if in the attacking end zone, the receiver gains possession at the nearest point on the goal line, and the fouling player must mark them there; or
- 188.8.131.52. if the foul is contested, the disc is returned to the thrower.
- 17.3. Force-out Fouls:
- 17.3.1. A Force-out Foul occurs when an airborne receiver catches the disc, and is fouled by a defensive player before landing, and the contact caused the receiver:
- 184.108.40.206. to land out-of-bounds instead of in-bounds; or
- 220.127.116.11. to land in the playing field proper instead of their attacking end zone.
- 17.3.2. If the receiver would have landed in their attacking end zone, it is a goal;
- 17.3.3. If the force-out foul is contested, the disc is returned to the thrower if the receiver landed out-of-bounds, otherwise the disc stays with the receiver.
- 17.4. Defensive Throwing (Marking) Fouls:
- 17.4.1. A Defensive Throwing Foul occurs when:
- 18.104.22.168. A defensive player is illegally positioned (Section 18.1), and there is contact with the thrower; or
- 22.214.171.124. A defensive player initiates contact with the thrower, or a part of their body was moving and contacted the thrower, prior to the release.
- 17.5. Strip Fouls:
- 17.5.1. A Strip Foul occurs when a defensive foul causes the receiver or thrower to drop the disc after they have gained possession.
- 17.5.2. If the reception would have otherwise been a goal, and the foul is uncontested, a goal is awarded.
- 17.6. Offensive Receiving Fouls:
- 17.6.1. An Offensive Receiving Foul occurs when a receiver initiates contact with a defensive player before, or during, an attempt to catch the disc.
- 17.6.2. If the foul is uncontested, the result is a turnover, with the disc at the location where the foul occurred.
- 17.6.3. If the pass is complete and the foul is contested, the disc returns to the thrower.
- 17.7. Offensive Throwing (Thrower) Fouls:
- 17.7.1. An Offensive Throwing Foul occurs when the thrower initiates contact with a defensive player who is in a legal position.
- 17.7.2. Incidental contact occurring during the thrower's follow through is not sufficient grounds for a foul, but should be avoided.
- 17.8. Blocking Fouls:
- 17.8.1. A Blocking Foul occurs when a player takes a position that a moving opponent will be unable to avoid and contact results.
- 17.9. Indirect Fouls:
- 17.9.1. An Indirect Foul occurs when there is contact between a receiver and a defensive player that does not directly affect an attempt to catch the disc.
- 17.9.2. If uncontested the fouled player may make up any positional disadvantage caused by the foul.
- 17.10. Offsetting Fouls:
- 17.10.1. If fouls are called by offensive and defensive players on the same play, the disc returns to the thrower.
18. Infractions and Violations
- 18.1. Marking Infractions:
- 18.1.1. Marking infractions include the following:
- 126.96.36.199. "Fast Count" - the marker:
- 188.8.131.52.1. starts the stall count before the disc is live,
- 184.108.40.206.2. does not start the stall count with the word "Stalling",
- 220.127.116.11.3. counts in less than one second intervals,
- 18.104.22.168.4. does not subtract two (2) seconds from the stall count after the first call of any marking infraction, or
- 22.214.171.124.5. does not start the stall count from the correct number.
- 126.96.36.199. "Straddle" - a line between a defensive player's feet contains the thrower's pivot point.
- 188.8.131.52. "Disc Space" - any part of a defensive player is less than one disc diameter away from the torso or pivot of the thrower. However, if this situation is caused solely by movement of the thrower, it is not an infraction.
- 184.108.40.206. "Wrapping" - a defensive player uses their arms to prevent the thrower from pivoting in any direction.
- 220.127.116.11. "Double Team" - more than one defensive player is within three (3) metres of the thrower's pivot point and further than three (3) metres away from all other offensive players.
- 18.104.22.168. "Vision" - a defensive player uses any part of their body to intentionally obstruct the thrower's vision.
- 22.214.171.124. "Contact" - a defensive player makes contact with the thrower prior to the thrower releasing the disc and not during the throwing motion. However, if this contact is caused solely by movement of the thrower, it is not an infraction.
- 18.1.2. A marking infraction may be contested by the defence, in which case play stops.
- 18.1.3. On the first call of a marking infraction that is not contested, the marker must subtract two (2) from the stall count and continue.
- 18.1.4. The marker may not restart counting until any illegal positioning has been corrected. To do otherwise is a subsequent marking infraction.
- 18.1.5. For any subsequent uncontested marking infraction called during the same throwers possession, the marker must reset the count to one (1) and continue.
- 18.1.6. If the thrower attempts a pass and a marking infraction is called during the throwing motion or when the disc is in the air, the call has no consequences.
- 18.2. "Travel" Infractions:
- 18.2.1. The thrower may attempt a pass at any time as long as they are entirely inbounds or have established an in-bounds pivot.
- 18.2.2. An in-bounds player who catches a pass while airborne may attempt a pass prior to contacting the ground.
- 18.2.3. After catching the disc, and landing in-bounds, the thrower must reduce speed as quickly as possible, without changing direction, until they have established a pivot point.
- 126.96.36.199. The thrower may release the disc while reducing speed as long as they maintain contact with the playing field throughout the throwing motion.
- 18.2.4. The thrower may change direction ("pivot") only by establishing a "pivot point", where one part of their body remains in constant contact with a certain spot on the playing field, called the "pivot point".
- 18.2.5. A thrower who is lying down or kneeling does not need to establish a pivot.
- 188.8.131.52. Once stopped, their centre of mass determines their pivot point, and they should not move away from that point while lying down or kneeling.
- 184.108.40.206. If they stand up, they must establish their pivot at that point.
- 18.2.6. A travel infraction occurs if:
- 220.127.116.11. the thrower establishes the pivot at an incorrect point on the playing field;
- 18.104.22.168. the thrower changes direction before establishing a pivot or releasing the disc;
- 22.214.171.124. the thrower fails to reduce their speed as quickly as possible;
- 126.96.36.199. the thrower fails to keep the established pivot until releasing the disc;
- 188.8.131.52. the thrower fails to maintain contact with the playing field throughout the throwing motion; or
- 184.108.40.206. a receiver purposefully bobbles, fumbles or delays the disc to themselves in order to move in any direction.
- 18.2.7. After an uncontested travel infraction, play does not stop.
- 220.127.116.11. The thrower establishes a pivot at the correct spot, as indicated by the player who called the travel. This must occur without delay from either player involved.
- 18.104.22.168. Any stall count is paused, and the thrower may not throw the disc, until the pivot is established at the correct spot.
- 22.214.171.124. A defensive player should call "Play on" as soon as the pivot has been established.
- 126.96.36.199. The marker must say "Stalling" or "Play on" before restarting the stall count.
- 18.2.8. If, after a travel infraction but before correcting the pivot, the thrower throws a completed pass, the defensive team may call "Violation". Play stops and the disc is returned to the thrower.
- 18.2.9. If, after a travel infraction, the thrower throws an incomplete pass, play shall continue.
- 18.2.10. After a contested travel infraction where the thrower has not released the disc, play stops.
- 18.3. "Pick" Violations:
- 18.3.1. If a defensive player is closely covering an offensive player and they are prevented from moving towards/with that player by another player, that defensive player may call "Pick".
- 18.3.2. Once play has stopped, the obstructed player may move to the position they determine they would have otherwise occupied if the obstruction had not occurred. The disc is returned to the thrower (if the disc was thrown) and any stall count restarts at maximum nine (9).
- 19.1. Injury Stoppage
- 19.1.1. An injury stoppage, "Injury", may be called by the injured player, or a team-mate if the injured player is unable to call it immediately, in which case the call is said to have occurred at the time of the injury.
- 19.1.2. If any player has an open or bleeding wound, an injury stoppage must be called and that player shall take an immediate injury substitution and may not rejoin the game until the wound is treated and sealed.
- 19.1.3. If the injury is not the result of a foul (contested or not), the player must be substituted, otherwise the player may choose to stay.
- 19.1.4. If the injured player leaves the field, the opposing team may also choose to substitute one player.
- 19.1.5. If the injured player had caught the disc, and the player has dropped the disc due to the injury, that player retains possession of the disc.
- 19.1.6. Substitute players due to an injury stoppage take on the full state (position, possession, stall count etc) of the player they are substituting.
- 19.2. Technical Stoppage
- 19.2.1. Any player who recognises a condition that endangers players may call "technical" to stop play.
- 19.2.2. The thrower may call a technical stoppage during play to replace a severely damaged disc.
- 19.3. If the disc was in the air when the stoppage was called, play continues until possession of the disc is determined:
- 19.3.1. If the injury or safety issue did not affect play, the completion or turnover stands, and play restarts there;
- 19.3.2. If the injury or safety issue did affect the play, the disc goes back to the thrower and the count restarts at maximum nine (9).
- 19.4. In timed games, the game clock stops during a stoppage.
- [[#a20.1 [[#a20.1 | 20.1. The player calling a time-out must form a "T" with their hands, or with one hand and the disc, and call "time-out" audibly to opposition players.
- 20.2. Each team shall have two (2) time-outs per half.
- 20.3. A time-out lasts two (2) minutes.
- 20.4. Тайм-аут длится две (2) минуты.
- 20.5. After the start of a point and prior to the ensuing pull, either team captain may call a time-out. The time-out extends the time between the start of the point and subsequent pull by two (2) minutes.
- 20.6. During play only the thrower, with an established pivot point, may call a time-out. After such a time-out:
- 20.6.1. Substitutions are not allowed, except for injury.
- 20.6.2. Play is restarted at the same pivot point.
- 20.6.3. The thrower remains the same.
- 20.6.4. All other offensive players may then set up at any point on the playing field.
- 20.6.5. Once the offensive players have selected positions, defensive players may set up at any point on the playing field.
- 20.6.6. The stall count remains the same, unless the marker has been switched.
- 20.7. If the thrower attempts to call a time-out when their team has no remaining time-outs, play is stopped. The marker shall add two (2) seconds to the stall count before restarting play with a check. If this results in a stall count of ten (10) or above, this is a "stall-out" turnover. If there is no current stall count, the defence may initiate a stall count at three (3).
- Act of throwing
- See throwing motion.
- Attacking end zone
- The end zone in which the team in question is currently attempting to score.
- Any pull that initially lands out-of-bounds, untouched by the receiving team.
- A clearly audible statement that a foul, infraction, violation or injury has occurred. The following terms may be used: Foul, Travel, specific name of Marking Infraction, Violation (or specific name of Violation), Stall, Technical, Freeze, Injury.
- Action of a defensive player touching the disc to restart play.
- Defending end zone
- The end zone in which the team in question is currently attempting to prevent the opposition from scoring.
- Defensive player
- Any player whose team is not in possession of the disc.
- End zone
- One of the two areas at the end of the playing field where teams can score a goal by catching the disc there.
- Establish a pivot
- After a turnover, the pivot point is defined, and the thrower establishes a pivot by placing a part of their body (usually a foot) there. After receiving a pass, a thrower must establish a pivot after they have come to a stop if they wish to then move. They establish the pivot by keeping a part of their body in constant contact with a particular point on the playing field.
- Any person who is determined to be female according to the current International Olympic Committee regulations.
- Goal line
- The line separating the playing field proper from each end zone.
- The ground consists of all substantial solid objects, including grass, marker cones, equipment, water and non-players, but excluding all players and their worn clothing, airborne particles and precipitation.
- Ground contact
- Refers to all player contact with the ground directly related to a specific event or manoeuvre, including landing or recovery after being off-balance (e.g., jumping, diving, leaning, or falling).
- Incidental contact
- Any contact which is not dangerous in nature and does not affect the outcome of play.
- When a player on the defensive team catches a throw by a player on the offensive team.
- Legitimate position
- The stationary position established by a player's body excluding extended arms and legs that can be avoided by all opposing players when time and distance are taken into account.
- A boundary defining the playing areas. On an unlined field, the boundary is defined as an imaginary line between two field markers with the thickness of said markers. Line segments are not extrapolated beyond the defining markers.
- Any person who is not female.
- The defensive player who is calling the stall count on the thrower.
- Any person, including a team member, who is not currently a player.
- Offensive player
- A player whose team is in possession of the disc.
- Out-of-bounds (OB)
- Everything that is not part of the playing field, including the perimeter lines.
- Perimeter lines
- Lines separating playing field proper or end zone from out-of-bounds area. They are not part of the playing field.
- To move in any direction while keeping a part of the body in contact with a single point on the playing field, called the pivot point.
- Pivot point
- The point on the playing field where the thrower is required to establish a pivot after a turnover, or where a pivot has already been established. A thrower may not have established a pivot point if they have not come to a stop and have not pivoted.
- The time after the Pull has commenced and prior to the scoring of a goal. Play may further stop due to a call, in which case play is restarted with a check.
- One of the up to fourteen (14) persons who are actually participating in the current point of play.
- Possession of the disc
- Sustained contact with, and control of, a non-spinning disc.
To catch a pass is equivalent to establishing possession of that pass.
Loss of possession due to ground contact related to a pass reception negates that player's possession up to that point.
A disc in the possession of a player is considered part of that player.
The team whose player is in possession or whose players may pick up the disc is considered the team in possession.
- Playing field
- The area including the playing field proper and the end zones, but excluding the perimeter lines.
- Playing field proper
- The area of the playing field, including the goal lines, but excluding the end zones and the perimeter lines.
- The throw from one team to the other that starts play at the beginning of a half or after a goal.
- All offensive players other than the thrower.
- Self check
- Action of the thrower touching the disc to the ground to restart play, taken when no defensive player is within reach of the thrower.
- Stoppage of play
- Any halting of play due to a foul, violation, discussion or time-out that requires a check or self-check to restart play.
The disc is not subject to a turnover unless the continuation rule applies.
- A disc in flight following any throwing motion, including after a fake attempt and an intentionally dropped disc, that results in loss of contact between the thrower and the disc.
A pass is the equivalent of a throw.
- The offensive player in possession of the disc, or the player who has just thrown the disc prior to when the result of the throw has been determined.
- Throwing motion
- The throwing motion is the motion that transfers momentum from the thrower to the disc in the direction of flight and results in a throw. Pivots and wind-ups are not part of the act of throwing.
- Time cap
- A Time Cap is a set amount of time from the start of the game which, when reached and after the current goal has been scored, will adjust the Goal Cap to an amount of goals that is equal to two (2) more than the score of the leading team, or of both teams if the game is tied.
- Any event resulting in a change of the team in possession.
- Where the disc stops
- Refers to the location where a disc is caught, comes to rest naturally, or where it is stopped from rolling or sliding.